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Major Factors to Consider in Designing and Installing a Chemical Injection Skid System

5. List of major components and procurement planning

While the chemical pump is the central unit of this system, it cannot work effectively without correct accessories and components that make a wholesome functioning system. The basic requirement for a metering pump hook up is to have a calibration column and strainer before the pump and pressure gauge with isolator, pulsation dampener, back pressure valve, pressure relief valve and flow meter on the discharge as shown in the graphic below. Most people think they do not need some or many of these accessories. However they are important in their own rights. Calibration column is more than just a flow measuring device, it also shows the effectiveness or lack thereof of the check valves on the pump. If the meniscus on the calibration column drops steadily it shows good valves, if it bounces around it indicates the check valves are leaking. A strainer prevents debris from getting caught into the check valves which causes leakage when it is closed. The pressure gauge is the stethoscope for the system which shows the pressure and how it fluctuates with each stroke. The back pressure valve ensures that there is enough back pressure on the check valve to close regardless of the discharge conditions. Pulsation dampener will reduce the pressure fluctuations giving a more steady read out from the flowmeter.

Depending upon the size and scope the chemical tank should be taken into account. If the tank is just a day tank and hence small it is often mounted on the skid itself. If not t hen it is located close by and the pump located below the level of the chemical at the lowest level to allow for flooded suction for […]

By |November 8th, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Expedited Production with 2-3 Day Delivery Coast to Coast from AquFlow

AquFlow over the years has built a solid reputation for industry leading quick production and deliveries. We have now formalized the process of an Expedited production, testing and deliveries for those unplanned pump emergencies. For most standard pump models we can expedite the whole process from order to delivery in less than a week. Call us and ask for Expedited Pump Delivery (EPD) if you need a pump in a hurry.

We have partnered with a couple of major LTL trucking companies that can deliver any pump, skid or a complete system to any of our customers coast to coast in 2-3 days. This is the standard service without paying any Express or Expedited charges. So when you need a large pump, skid or a complete system to be delivered almost anywhere in the 48 states, please ask us for the 2-3 days LTL service without any extra charge. This is just another way we try to serve our customer better and faster.

By |October 12th, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Major Factors to Consider in Designing and Installing a Chemical Injection Skid System

4. Control Systems For The Skid

This is where we decide about the controls for the delivery of the chemical (and hence the pump) and sensors to verify if the system is doing what it is expected to do.

The first thing we take into consideration here is the power that is available. That will determine the selection of the motor, sensor and controls. Usually that power is single or three phase AC voltage. Although in remote areas there could be the need for DC power especially if the source is a generator or solar.

The flow of the chemical can be regulated by using a VFD on the motor to regulate the speed or by an automatic stroke adjustment system (like AquFlow’s ECCA) which will increase or decrease the effective stroke length. Many engineers prefer a combination of the two controls calling it a Dual Axis control. Both these controls can be driven by a 4-20 mA signal from an external system such as SCADA which takes into consideration several other inputs such as flow or quantity of the water to be treated, contamination level etc.

Once the flow of the chemical is controlled it is often recommended to measure the output of the chemical in the pipe line by suing a flow measurement device. This device again communicates back to a central system like SCADA which takes this input and fine tunes the pump flow capacity by one or both of the above methods.

If an external control system like SCADA is not available, AquFlow offers a self contained control unit called IVAX which stands for Intelligent Verification and Control System. This has the ability to offer a complete feedback loop to send control signal, verify the actual […]

By |October 12th, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Major Factors to Consider in Designing and Installing a Chemical Injection Skid System

3. Chemical, Performance and Specifications

This is at the heart of any chemical injection system. Dispensing and handling chemicals is the Raison D’etre (the main purpose) for the system. Choice of material of construction for the wetted parts and its corrosion resistance is not just a reliability issue but also a serious safety concern. The rate at which the chemical needs to be injected directly impacts the  effectiveness of the process. The pressure at which the chemical needs to be delivered would dictate the strength of the pipes and power for the driver / motor for the pump.

Here we delve deep into what chemical we are pumping, where it is coming from (source tank) and where it is going (injection point) along with the precise flow rate and the pressure it needs to overcome. Metering pumps do not perform well if the suction line is too long or too narrow. Hence the location of the supply tank in relation to the pump skid needs to be within a reasonable distance. The pipe diameter for the pump needs to be large enough so it does not offer enough restriction to starve the pump in its fill cycle. Another concern is the relation of the location of the pump to the tank chemical level on a vertical axis. If the pump has to lift the chemical from a level that is far below the pump suction port, the pump needs to be chosen with enhanced suction capabilities.

Additionally the corrosion resistance to the chemical for the pump, piping/fittings and any other component that comes in contact with the chemical needs to be carefully examined before material of construction is chosen. Often times the main material is chosen correctly to […]

By |September 13th, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Major Factors to Consider in Designing and Installing a Chemical Injection Skid System

1.
Scope and Compliance: Define clearly the purpose and functions of this skid system. Here you will define what chemical it is pumping, what would be the flow and pressure of that chemical. What is the function of the chemical in the overall process? How critical it is and if it requires redundancy and what is the duty cycle. Also briefly describe the environment where the system is located and where it will be injecting. Depending upon the application, industry and environment there will be a list of compliance requirements. Make a complete list of pump, environmental, structural and locational compliances.

2.
Location / Structural & Power: Both the location of the facility and the location of the system within the facility are major factors that need to be surveyed. The structure on which the system will be mounted and structural requirements of the skid itself needs to be defined based upon the location and its vulnerabilities. The availability and feasibility of power which in most cases would be electric and in some cases would be solar or pneumatic would determine the motive system driving the injection pump.

3.
Chemical and Performance Specifications: Choice of material of construction for the wetted parts and its corrosion resistance is not just a reliability issue but also a serious safety concern. The rate at which the chemical needs to be injected directly impacts the  effectiveness of the process. The pressure at which the chemical needs to be delivered would dictate the strength of the pipes and power for the driver / motor for the pump.

4.
Control System: This is the brains of the system. The control system turns the pumps or valves on and off depending upon the verification of the actual flow delivery. […]

By |August 15th, 2018|News|0 Comments

Major Factors to Consider in Designing and Installing a Chemical Injection Skid System

1.
Scope and Compliance: Define clearly the purpose and functions of this skid system. Here you will define what chemical it is pumping, what would be the flow and pressure of that chemical. What is the function of the chemical in the overall process? How critical it is and if it requires redundancy and what is the duty cycle. Also briefly describe the environment where the system is located and where it will be injecting. Depending upon the application, industry and environment there will be a list of compliance requirements. Make a complete list of pump, environmental, structural and locational compliances.

2.
Location / Structural & Power: Both the location of the facility and the location of the system within the facility are major factors that need to be surveyed. The structure on which the system will be mounted and structural requirements of the skid itself needs to be defined based upon the location and its vulnerabilities. The availability and feasibility of power which in most cases would be electric and in some cases would be solar or pneumatic would determine the motive system driving the injection pump.

3.
Chemical and Performance Specifications: Choice of material of construction for the wetted parts and its corrosion resistance is not just a reliability issue but also a serious safety concern. The rate at which the chemical needs to be injected directly impacts the  effectiveness of the process. The pressure at which the chemical needs to be delivered would dictate the strength of the pipes and power for the driver / motor for the pump.

4.
Control System: This is the brains of the system. The control system turns the pumps or valves on and off depending upon the verification of the actual flow delivery. […]

By |August 2nd, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Chemical Metering Pumps in a Power Plant

Have you ever wondered why power plants are located close to a water source such as a river? It is because of the need for water. Water is needed to generate steam to run the boilers and then water is needed to cool the systems after the electricity is produced from the turbines. According to estimation, the water consumption runs into thousands of gallons per Megawatt Hour of electricity produced. This water needs to be treated beforehand to get rid of organic and inorganic impurities. If the water is not treated it will start corroding the system and also reducing the efficiency due to scaling, etc. Following are some of the areas where chemical treatment of water is used in power plants.

1. Scale Inhibition, Hardness Stabilization: AquFlow Chemical Metering pumps are used for injecting phosphonates such as Phosphonobutane Tricarbonic acid.

2. Disinfection: AquFlow Chemical Metering pumps are used for injecting Sodium Hypochlorite and Paracetic Acid.

3. Flocculation: PAC (Poly Aluminum Chloride) or Ferric Chloride is injected using AquFlow pumps.

4. pH Adjustment with Acids: AquFlow Pumps are used for adding Sulfuric Acid or Hydrochloric Acid.

5. pH Adjustment with Caustic Soda: Sodium Hydroxide is added with AquFlow Chemical Metering Pumps.

6. Cleaning Agents: Formic Acid or Citric Acid.

7. Heavy Metal Precipitation: Sodium Sulfide or Hydrogen Sulfide is injected into the water using AquFlow pumps.

All these applications of chemical injection require precise amounts of dosing for the chemical. Hydraulically balanced diaphragm pumps are uniquely designed to deliver exact amounts of chemical regardless of the pressure and flow. They are very easy to adjust either manually or with a 4-20mA signal. They provide dual axis control, one with stroke length adjustment and another with RPM adjustment with a VFD. To facilitate the […]

By |April 12th, 2018|Metering Pumps Tips|0 Comments

Know Your Chlorine

Chlorine is one of the most commonly used disinfectants for water disinfection. Chlorine can be applied for the deactivation of most microorganisms and it is relatively cheap. Chlorine (Cl2) is one of the most reactive elements; it easily binds to other elements. In the periodic table Chlorine can be found among the halogens.

HOW TO PROPERLY STORE CHLORINE:
Watery chlorine should be protected from sunlight. Chlorine is broken down under the influence of sunlight. UV radiation in sunlight provides energy which aids the break-down of underchloric acid (HOCl) molecules. First, the Water molecule (H2O) is broken down, causing electrons to be released which reduce the chlorine atom of underchloric acid to chloride (Cl-). During this reaction an oxygen atom is released, which will be converted into an oxygen molecule: 2HOCl -> 2H+ + 2Cl- + O2

HOW IS CHLORINE PRODUCED?:
Chlorine is produced from chlorine bonds by means of electrolytic or chemical oxidation. This is often attained by electrolysis of seawater or rock salt. The salts are dissolved in water, forming brine. Brine can conduct a powerful direct current in an electrolytic cell. Because of this current chlorine ions (which originate from salt dissolving in water) are transformed to chlorine atoms. Salt and water are divided up in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2) on the cathode and chlorine gas on the anode. These cathode and anode products should be separated, because hydrogen gas reacts with chlorine gas very aggressively. Chlorine-based bleach is applied as a disinfectant on a large scale. The substances are also used to bleach paper. Bleaching occurs as a result of chlorine or hypochlorite oxidation.

COMMON INDUSTRIAL USES OF CHLORINE:
About 65% of industrialized chlorine is used to produce organic chemicals, such as plastics. About 20% […]

By |March 14th, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Flocculant Chemical Metering

Flocculants are polymers that promote flocculation by formation of links between themselves and thus enable suspended particles to aggregate. When the suspended particles are flocculated into larger ones, they are settled in devices like thickeners and clarifiers and removed with the underflow. The flocculants accelerate the settling process, which leads to the potential use of smaller thickeners. Flocculants can also be used to aid filtration.

Flocculation is employed for a variety of applications from mineral processing to purification of drinking water.
This includes:
• Concentrate and Tailings thickeners in the mining industry
• Water treatment plants
• Filtration aid
• Sewage applications
• Treatment of industrial waste water streams
• Clarification processes

Requirements of flocculant polymers are that they be strongly adsorbed onto the particles and that they are capable of spanning the gap between the particles. Synthetic polymers of high molecular weight are long enough for one end of a single molecule to adsorb onto one particle and the other end onto a second particle. Higher molecular weight polymers can adsorb on several particles at once, forming a three-dimensional matrix.

In general, the higher the molecular weight the better the flocculation and the faster the sedimentation rate. In the case of filtration, however, the lower molecular weight products can be more effective. This is because the flocs formed with high molecular weight products are relatively large, trapping water within the structure and increasing the final moisture content of the filter cake.

Most synthetic flocculants are based on polyacrylamide and its derivatives. Flocculants generally carry either a positive (cationic) or a negative (anionic) charge. Polyacrylamide itself essentially is nonionic and the desired ionic character is produced by copolymerisation with other monomers. Anionic polyacrylamides are produced by copolymerisation with acrylic acid, while for cationic polymers one of […]

By |February 12th, 2018|News|0 Comments

AquFlow Pumps in Cooling Tower Applications

Cooling towers are very common in industrial complexes and commercial buildings. The one thing common is that they use a lot of water. Water conservation requires that water to be recirculated. And that recirculated water needs to be treated to ensure that it does not corrode or scale the cooling elements. Additionally there are possibilities of organic growth within the water which requires treatment with biocides.

Corrosion Inhibitors – These are injected in the recirculated water to prevent corrosive damage to the components.
Scale Inhibitors – Scaling can be more damaging than corrosion sometimes as it drastically reduces the heat transfer. Anti-scalants are injected to prevent scaling in the pipes and tubes.
Biocides – There are two options here Non-Oxidizing Biocides and Oxidizing Biocides. The Non-Oxidizing biocides are dosed once or twice a week and they typically require and contact time of 4 hours. Oxidizing Biocides such as Chlorine and Bromine are used depending upon the pH of the water. Bromine is effective for pH up to 9 and Chlorine is good for lower pH around 6 or 7. Their level are usually measured using Redox (Oxidation Reduction Potential – ORP).